The Health Implications of Fracking
Kovats S, Depledge M, Haines A, Fleming LE, Wilkinson P, Shonkoff SB, Scovronick N
What is known about the health effects of gas extraction by induced hydraulic fracturing of gas-bearing rock—ie, fracking? A workshop held on Nov 15, 2013, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and attended by scientists, public health professionals, and decision makers addressed this question.
Methane Leaks from North American Natural Gas Systems
A. R. Brandt, G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O'Sullivan, G. Pétron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, R. Harriss
This study examines recent estimates of methane leakage, which have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas.
Crude Oil Impairs Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Fish
Science; 14 February 2014
Fabien Brette, Ben Machado, Caroline Cros, John P. Incardona, Nathaniel L. Scholz, Barbara A. Block
The findings of this study demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates.
The role of ethics in shale gas policies
Science of the Total Environment, 2014
01 Feb 2014
Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Jake Hays, Madelon L. Finkel
This article argues that legislators making decisions about shale gas development have a prima facie duty to minimize false negatives.
Birth Outcomes and Maternal Residential Proximity to Natural Gas Development in Rural Colorado
Environmental Health Perspectives
28 Jan 2014
Lisa M. McKenzie, Ruixin Guo, Roxana Z. Witter, David A. Savitz, Lee S. Newman, and John L. Adgate
This study examined associations between maternal exposure to natural gas development and birth outcomes in Colorado.
Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Activities of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Surface and Ground Water in a Drilling-Dense Region
16 Dec 2013
Christopher D. Kassotis, Donald E. Tillitt, J. Wade Davis, Annette M. Hormann, Susan C. Nagel.
This study collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured water samples in Colorado for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines.
Anthropogenic emissions of methane in the United States
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
25 Nov 2013
Scot M. Miller, Steven C. Wofsy, Anna M. Michalak, Eric A. Kort, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Janusz Eluszkiewicz, Marc L. Fischer, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Ben R. Miller, John B. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Thomas Nehrkor
Successful regulation of greenhouse gas emissions requires knowledge of current methane emission sources. Existing state regulations in California and Massachusetts require ∼15% greenhouse gas emissions reductions from current levels by 2020. However, government estimates for total US methane emissions may be biased by 50%, and estimates of individual source sectors are even more uncertain. This study uses atmospheric methane observations to reduce this level of uncertainty. We find greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and fossil fuel extraction and processing (i.e., oil and/or natural gas) are likely a factor of two or greater than cited in existing studies. Effective national and state greenhouse gas reduction strategies may be difficult to develop without appropriate estimates of methane emissions from these source sectors.
Time Series EROI for Canadian Oil and Gas
Alexandre Poisson and Charles A. S. Hall *
Study presents a calculation of the energy return on investment (EROI) of Canadian unconventional and conventional oil and gas and find a 63% increase in energy investment in the O&G sector overall over the last two decades. This increase in energy invested has increased energy production just 18%. EROI for the sector and for tar sands alone are estimated at 11.1 and 4.1 respectively.
Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States
David T. Allen, Vincent M. Torres, James Thomas, David W. Sullivan, Matthew Harrison, Al Hendler, Scott C. Herndon, Charles E. Kolb, Matthew P. Fraser, A. Daniel Hill, Brian K. Lamb, Jennifer Miskimins, Robert F. Sawyer, and John H. Seinfeld
This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States.
The Importance of Public Health Agency Independence: Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling in Pennsylvania
American Journal of Public Health, 2013
20 Oct 2013
Bernard D. Goldstein, MD
This policy brief discusses the importance of public health agency independence and points to the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling.