Assessment and risk analysis of casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, 2000–2012
Anthony R. Ingraffea, Martin T. Wells, Renee L. Santoro, and Seth B. C. Shonkoff
Previous research has demonstrated that proximity to unconventional gas development is associated with elevated concentrations of methane in groundwater aquifers in Pennsylvania. To date, the mechanism of this migration is poorly understood. Our study, which looks at more than 41,000 conventional and unconventional oil and gas wells, helps to explain one possible mechanism of methane migration: compromised structural integrity of casing and cement in oil and gas wells. Additionally, methane, being the primary constituent of natural gas, is a strong greenhouse gas. The identification of mechanisms through which methane may migrate to the atmosphere as fugitive emissions is important to understand the climate dimensions of oil and gas development.
Spatially Explicit Methane Emissions from Petroleum Production and the Natural Gas System in California
Environmental Science & Technology
23 Apr 2014
Seongeun Jeong,* Dev Millstein, and Marc L. Fischer
This study presents a spatially-resolved methane inventory for the state of California based on EPA emission factors and compares the estimated emissions to atmospheric measurements. The study finds that the EPA's methane emission estimates for natural gas transmission and distribution are too low by a factor of 2.
Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development
Dana R. Caulton, Paul B. Shepson, Renee L. Santoro, Jed P. Sparks, Robert W. Howarth, Anthony R. Ingraffea, Maria O. L. Cambaliza, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, Kenneth J. Davis, Brian H. Stirm, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller
Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation
Marine and Petroleum Geology
Richard J. Davies, Sam Almond, Robert S. Ward, Robert B. Jackson, Charlotte Adams, Fred Worrall, Liam G. Herringshaw, Jon G. Gluyas, Mark A. Whitehead
This reviews datasets from around the globe in order to provide an estimate of the number of producing, idle, abandoned and orphaned onshore hydrocarbon wells globally and to document the number of wells that are known to have had some form of well barrier and/or integrity failure.
Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC
Environmental Science and Technology
Jackson, Robert B., Adrian Down, Nathan G. Phillips, Robert C. Ackley, Charles W. Cook, Desiree L. Plata, and Kaiguang Zhao
This study presents sampling results of methane leakage from the natural gas distribution system in Washington DC. 12 of the 19 locations tested showed concentrations hig enough to risk explosion.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Turconi, Roberto, Alessio Boldrin, and Thomas Astrup
This study presents a review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2.
The Environmental Price Tag on a Ton of Mountaintop Removal Coal
Brian D. Lutz, Emily S. Bernhardt, William H. Schlesinger
This study provides an estimate for how much coal is produced per unit landscape disturbance in the Central Appalachians using regional satellite-derived mine delineations and historical county-level coal production data for the period 1985–2005.
Isotopic Imprints of Mountaintop Mining Contaminants
Environmental Science & Technology
02 Aug 2013
Avner Vengosh, T. Ty Lindberg, Brittany R. Merola, Laura Ruhl, Nathaniel R. Warner, Alissa White, Gary S. Dwyer, and Richard T. Di Giulio
This study measures the chemical and isotopic compositions of water samples from MTM-impacted tributaries and streams in the Mud River watershed in West Virginia.
Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates
Environmental Research Letters
Meldrum, J., S. Nettles-Anderson, G. Heath, and J. Macknick
This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of electricity generated with fossil fuel, nuclear, and wind, solar, and geothermal technologies.
Oil depletion and the energy efficiency of oil production: the case of California
12 Oct 2011
This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil. extraction and refining in California.