The Health Implications of Fracking
Kovats S, Depledge M, Haines A, Fleming LE, Wilkinson P, Shonkoff SB, Scovronick N
What is known about the health effects of gas extraction by induced hydraulic fracturing of gas-bearing rock—ie, fracking? A workshop held on Nov 15, 2013, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and attended by scientists, public health professionals, and decision makers addressed this question.
Birth Outcomes and Maternal Residential Proximity to Natural Gas Development in Rural Colorado
Environmental Health Perspectives
28 Jan 2014
Lisa M. McKenzie, Ruixin Guo, Roxana Z. Witter, David A. Savitz, Lee S. Newman, and John L. Adgate
This study examined associations between maternal exposure to natural gas development and birth outcomes in Colorado.
Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Activities of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Surface and Ground Water in a Drilling-Dense Region
16 Dec 2013
Christopher D. Kassotis, Donald E. Tillitt, J. Wade Davis, Annette M. Hormann, Susan C. Nagel.
This study collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured water samples in Colorado for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines.
The Importance of Public Health Agency Independence: Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling in Pennsylvania
American Journal of Public Health, 2013
20 Oct 2013
Bernard D. Goldstein, MD
This policy brief discusses the importance of public health agency independence and points to the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling.
The implications of unconventional drilling for natural gas: a global public health concern
11 Oct 2013
Finkel, M.L. and J. Hays
This commentary explores the need for research to quantify the potential risks to the environment and to human health from unconventional natural gas development in both the short-term and long-term.
Air pollutant emissions from the development, production and processing of Marcellus Shale natural gas
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
06 Aug 2013
Anirban A. Roy, Peter J. Adams & Allen L. Robinson
This work describes an air emissions inventory for the development, production and processing of natural gas in the Marcellus Shale region for 2009 and 2020.
Modern Natural Gas Development and Harm to Health: The Need for Proactive Public Health Policies
ISRN Public Health
17 May 2013
Madelon L. Finkel PhD, Jake Hays MA, and Adam Law MD
Commentary discusses the downside of modern, unconventional natural gas development and its potential for harm.
The Shale Gas Boom and the Need for Rational Policy
American Journal of Public Health
16 May 2013
Madelon Finkel PhD, Jake Hays MA, and Adam Law MD
A commentary calling for precautionary policy measures in the absence of methodologically sound data on potential harms to the environment and human health from shale gas development.
Marcellus Shale Drilling's Impact on the Dairy Industry in Pennsylvania: A Descriptive Report
Madelon L. Finkel, Jane Selegean, Jake Hays, Nitin Kondamudi
Estimation of regional air-quality damages from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction in Pennsylvania
Environmental Research Letters
31 January 2013
Aviva Litovitz, Aimee Curtright, Shmuel Abramzon, Nicholas Burger and Constantine Samaras
This study gives an estimate of the conventional air pollutant emissions (VOC, NOx PM2.5, PM10 and SOx) from shale gas development in Pennsylvania and the monetary value of the associated environmental and health damages. Region-wide damages were estimated between $7.2 to $32 million dollars for 2011. While emissions and damage estimates are relatively small compared to other major sources of air pollution in the state overall, they are a concern in regions of significant extraction activities, which tend to be concentrated in a few counties. In counties with concentrated activity NOx emissions from the shale gas industry were 20-40 times higher than allowable for a single minor source. The authors also note that the industry and regulatory agencies need to account for air emissions from ongoing, long-term activities and not only those associated with development since more than 80% of damages occur in the years after the well is developed. For instance, compressor station activities alone account for 60-75% of all extraction-associated damages. It is important to consider county-level damage given site-specific variability such as the concentration of shale gas activities, population, and areas where air quality is already a concern. The authors conclude that shale gas extraction will be associated with non-trivial air pollution emissions and that more detailed analyses (e.g. regional data acquisition and consideration of site-specific variability.