Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: Links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence
Keranen KM, Savage HM, Abers GA, Cochran ES
Significant earthquakes are increasingly occurring within the continental interior of the United States, including five of moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0 in 2011 alone. Concurrently, the volume of fluid injected into the subsurface related to the production of unconventional resources continues to rise. Here we identify the largest earthquake potentially related to injection, an Mw 5.7 earthquake in November 2011 in Oklahoma.
Hydraulic Fracturing and Brook Trout Habitat in the Marcellus Shale Region: Potential Impacts and Research Needs
Weltman-Fahs M & JM Taylor
The expansion of hydraulic fracturing poses multiple threats to surface waters, which can be tied to key ecological attributes that limit brook trout populations. Here, we expand current conceptual models to identify three potential
pathways of risk between surface water threats associated with increased natural gas development and life history attributes of brook trout: hydrological, physical, and chemical.
Oil depletion and the energy efficiency of oil production: the case of California
12 Oct 2011
This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil.
extraction and refining in California.
Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies
National Research Council
15 Jun 2012
National Research Council
In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them.
Should Fracking Stop? Extracting gas from shale increases the availability of this resource, but the health and environmental risks may be too high.
Robert W. Howarth, Anthony Ingraffea & Terry Engelder
Point and counterpoint commentary provided by Howarth, Ingraffea, & Engelder on natural gas extraction of shale formations in Nature.
Land Application of Hydrofracturing Fluids Damages a Deciduous Forest Stand in West Virginia
Journal of Environmental Quality
Mary Beth Adams
This case study identifies the need for further research to help understand the nature and the environmental impacts of hydrofracturing fluids to devise optimal, safe disposal strategies.