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Open Access
Peer Reviewed

The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking

Annual Reviews
09 Aug 2014
Robert B. Jackson, Avner Vengosh, J. William Carey, Richard J. Davies, Thomas H. Darrah, Francis O'Sullivan, and Gabrielle Pétron
A comprehensive review of the environmental consequences of unconventional energy extraction and hydraulic fracturing, including production estimates, water intensity, issues of well integrity and potential leakage of chemicals, brines, or gases, water quality, the potential for induced seismicity and the life-cycle emissions of hydrocarbons.
Peer Reviewed

Enhanced Remote Earthquake Triggering at Fluid-Injection Sites in the Midwestern United States

Science
12 July 2013
van der Elst NJ, HM Savage KM Keranen, GA Abers

This study demonstrates the link between large remote seismic waves and the increased susceptibility of earthquakes triggered localy around injection areas.

Peer Reviewed

Injection-Induced Earthquakes

Science
12 July 2013
Ellsworth, WL
This paper reviews recent seismic activity potentially associated with oil and gas activity and particularly, assesses the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes, and discusses the key scientific challenges in assessing this hazard."
Open Access
Peer Reviewed

Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: Links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence

Geology
26 Mar 2013
Keranen KM, Savage HM, Abers GA, Cochran ES
Significant earthquakes are increasingly occurring within the continental interior of the United States, including five of moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0 in 2011 alone. Concurrently, the volume of fluid injected into the subsurface related to the production of unconventional resources continues to rise. Here we identify the largest earthquake potentially related to injection, an Mw 5.7 earthquake in November 2011 in Oklahoma.
Open Access
Peer Reviewed

Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies

National Research Council
15 Jun 2012
National Research Council

In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them.

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