Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California
Atmos Chem Phys
12 Jan 2015
K. W. Wong, D. Fu, T. J. Pongetti, S. Newman, E. A. Kort, R. Duren, Y.-K. Hsu, C. E. Miller, Y. L. Yung, and S. P. Sander
This study uses high elevation ground-based remote sensing to to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in Los Angeles metropolitan area using tracer–tracer correlations and finds CH4 emissions 18 - 61% larger than the state government's bottom-up CH4 emission inventory and consistent with previous studies.
Assessment and risk analysis of casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, 2000–2012
Anthony R. Ingraffea, Martin T. Wells, Renee L. Santoro, and Seth B. C. Shonkoff
Previous research has demonstrated that proximity to unconventional gas development is associated with elevated concentrations of methane in groundwater aquifers in Pennsylvania. To date, the mechanism of this migration is poorly understood. Our study, which looks at more than 41,000 conventional and unconventional oil and gas wells, helps to explain one possible mechanism of methane migration: compromised structural integrity of casing and cement in oil and gas wells. Additionally, methane, being the primary constituent of natural gas, is a strong greenhouse gas. The identification of mechanisms through which methane may migrate to the atmosphere as fugitive emissions is important to understand the climate dimensions of oil and gas development.
Spatially Explicit Methane Emissions from Petroleum Production and the Natural Gas System in California
Environmental Science & Technology
23 Apr 2014
Seongeun Jeong,* Dev Millstein, and Marc L. Fischer
This study presents a spatially-resolved methane inventory for the state of California based on EPA emission factors and compares the estimated emissions to atmospheric measurements. The study finds that the EPA's methane emission estimates for natural gas transmission and distribution are too low by a factor of 2.
Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development
Dana R. Caulton, Paul B. Shepson, Renee L. Santoro, Jed P. Sparks, Robert W. Howarth, Anthony R. Ingraffea, Maria O. L. Cambaliza, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, Kenneth J. Davis, Brian H. Stirm, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller
Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation
Marine and Petroleum Geology
Richard J. Davies, Sam Almond, Robert S. Ward, Robert B. Jackson, Charlotte Adams, Fred Worrall, Liam G. Herringshaw, Jon G. Gluyas, Mark A. Whitehead
This reviews datasets from around the globe in order to provide an estimate of the number of producing, idle, abandoned and orphaned onshore hydrocarbon wells globally and to document the number of wells that are known to have had some form of well barrier and/or integrity failure.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Turconi, Roberto, Alessio Boldrin, and Thomas Astrup
This study presents a review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2.
Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates
Environmental Research Letters
Meldrum, J., S. Nettles-Anderson, G. Heath, and J. Macknick
This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of electricity generated with fossil fuel, nuclear, and wind, solar, and geothermal technologies.
Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC
Environmental Science and Technology
Jackson, Robert B., Adrian Down, Nathan G. Phillips, Robert C. Ackley, Charles W. Cook, Desiree L. Plata, and Kaiguang Zhao
This study presents sampling results of methane leakage from the natural gas distribution system in Washington DC. 12 of the 19 locations tested showed concentrations hig enough to risk explosion.
Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity
Environmental Research Letters
16 Feb 2012
Myhrvold NP and Caldeira K
A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1–100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.
The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel lifecycles
21 Mar 2012
Raugei M, P Fullana-i-Palmer, and V Fthenakis
A study on net energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) systems indicates the PV energy balance is similar to that of conventional fossil fuels.