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Peer Reviewed

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Dec 2013
Turconi, Roberto, Alessio Boldrin, and Thomas Astrup
This study presents a review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2.
Peer Reviewed

Examining the Feasibility of Converting New York State’s All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure to One Using Wind, Water and Sunlight

Energy Policy
12 Mar 2013
Jacobson MZ, RW Howarth, MA Delucchi, SR Scobie, JM Barth, MJ. Dvorak, M Klevze, H Katkhuda, B Miranda, NA Chowdhury, R Jones, L Plano, AR Ingraffea
This study analyzes a plan to convert New York State's (NYS's) all-purpose (for electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry) energy infrastructure to one derived entirely from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) generating electricity and electrolytic hydrogen.
Open Access
Peer Reviewed

Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates

Environmental Research Letters
Mar 2013
Meldrum, J., S. Nettles-Anderson, G. Heath, and J. Macknick
This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of electricity generated with fossil fuel, nuclear, and wind, solar, and geothermal technologies.
Peer Reviewed

Environmental Impacts of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles—a Review

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
01 Sep 2013
Hawkins, Troy R., Ola Moa Gausen, and Anders Hammer Strømman
Study reviews 51 environmental assessments of hybrid and electric vehicles.
Peer Reviewed

The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel lifecycles

Energy Policy
21 Mar 2012
Raugei M, P Fullana-i-Palmer, and V Fthenakis
A study on net energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) systems indicates the PV energy balance is similar to that of conventional fossil fuels.
Peer Reviewed

Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity

Environmental Research Letters
16 Feb 2012
Myhrvold NP and Caldeira K
A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1–100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.
Peer Reviewed

The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity

Science
24 Nov 2011
JH Williams, A DeBenedictis, R Ghanadan, A Mahone, J Moore, WR Morrow III, S Price, MS. Torn
An analysis of the infrastructure and technology required to meet California's greenhouse gas reduction targets using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability.

The Hidden Factors That Make Wind Energy Cheaper than Natural Gas in the United States

The Electricity Journal
01 Nov 2011
Donald McCubbin, Benjamin K. Sovacool
Study compares wind energy to natural-gas fired generation due to quantifiable human health, wildlife, and climate benefits.

A Monte Carlo Approach to Generator Portfolio Planning and Carbon Emissions Assessments of Systems with Large Penetrations of Variable Renewables.

Renewable Energy
01 Aug 2011
Hart E, Jacobson MZ
This study presents a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module to determine the expected least-cost dispatch from wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as hydroelectric, geothermal, and natural gas plants.
Open Access
Peer Reviewed

Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects

Solar Energy
03 Jan 2011
T.M. Razykova, C.S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H.S. Ullal, H.M. Upadhyaya
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