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Peer Reviewed

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Dec 2013
Turconi, Roberto, Alessio Boldrin, and Thomas Astrup
This study presents a review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2.
Open Access
Peer Reviewed

Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates

Environmental Research Letters
Mar 2013
Meldrum, J., S. Nettles-Anderson, G. Heath, and J. Macknick
This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of electricity generated with fossil fuel, nuclear, and wind, solar, and geothermal technologies.

Air Emissions due to Wind and Solar Power

Environmental Science and Technology
Dec 2008
Warren Katzenstein and Jay Apt
Study compares carbon dioxide and NOx emission from wind or solar systems with natural gas power used to compensate for intermittency.

Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity

Energy Policy
June 2009
Sovacool, BK
This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it.

A Monte Carlo Approach to Generator Portfolio Planning and Carbon Emissions Assessments of Systems with Large Penetrations of Variable Renewables.

Renewable Energy
01 Aug 2011
Hart E, Jacobson MZ
This study presents a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module to determine the expected least-cost dispatch from wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as hydroelectric, geothermal, and natural gas plants.

The Hidden Factors That Make Wind Energy Cheaper than Natural Gas in the United States

The Electricity Journal
01 Nov 2011
Donald McCubbin, Benjamin K. Sovacool
Study compares wind energy to natural-gas fired generation due to quantifiable human health, wildlife, and climate benefits.

Comparative Analysis of Battery Electric, Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles in a Future Sustainable Road Transport System

Energy Policy
01 Jan 2010
Offer, G. J., D. Howey, M. Contestabile, R. Clague, and N. P. Brandon
Study provides qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile for This study provides qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV)
Peer Reviewed

Environmental Impacts of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles—a Review

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
01 Sep 2013
Hawkins, Troy R., Ola Moa Gausen, and Anders Hammer Strømman
Study reviews 51 environmental assessments of hybrid and electric vehicles.
Peer Reviewed

Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies

13 Aug 2004
Pacala, S and R Socolow
This study details approaches to leveling carbon emissions using a portfolio of existing, market-ready technologies.
Peer Reviewed

The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity

24 Nov 2011
JH Williams, A DeBenedictis, R Ghanadan, A Mahone, J Moore, WR Morrow III, S Price, MS. Torn
An analysis of the infrastructure and technology required to meet California's greenhouse gas reduction targets using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability.
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