Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Turconi, Roberto, Alessio Boldrin, and Thomas Astrup
This study presents a review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2.
Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates
Environmental Research Letters
Meldrum, J., S. Nettles-Anderson, G. Heath, and J. Macknick
This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of electricity generated with fossil fuel, nuclear, and wind, solar, and geothermal technologies.
Air Emissions due to Wind and Solar Power
Environmental Science and Technology
Warren Katzenstein and Jay Apt
Study compares carbon dioxide and NOx emission from wind or solar systems with natural gas power used to compensate for intermittency.
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity
This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it.
A Monte Carlo Approach to Generator Portfolio Planning and Carbon Emissions Assessments of Systems with Large Penetrations of Variable Renewables.
01 Aug 2011
Hart E, Jacobson MZ
This study presents a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module to determine the expected least-cost dispatch from wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as hydroelectric, geothermal, and natural gas plants.
The Hidden Factors That Make Wind Energy Cheaper than Natural Gas in the United States
The Electricity Journal
01 Nov 2011
Donald McCubbin, Benjamin K. Sovacool
Study compares wind energy to natural-gas fired generation due to quantifiable human health, wildlife, and climate benefits.
Comparative Analysis of Battery Electric, Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles in a Future Sustainable Road Transport System
01 Jan 2010
Offer, G. J., D. Howey, M. Contestabile, R. Clague, and N. P. Brandon
Study provides qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile for This study provides qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV)
Environmental Impacts of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles—a Review
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
01 Sep 2013
Hawkins, Troy R., Ola Moa Gausen, and Anders Hammer Strømman
Study reviews 51 environmental assessments of hybrid and electric vehicles.
Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies
Pacala, S and R Socolow
This study details approaches to leveling carbon emissions using a portfolio of existing, market-ready technologies.
The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity
JH Williams, A DeBenedictis, R Ghanadan, A Mahone, J Moore, WR Morrow III, S Price, MS. Torn
An analysis of the infrastructure and technology required to meet California's greenhouse gas reduction targets using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability.